The 28th of April is the big day – the new concert hall in the Kulturpalast in Dresden will be ceremonially opened with a festive program. On the day after, the rooms of the other main functions of the Kulturpalast, i.e. the new central library and the “Herkuleskeule” cabaret venue, will be inaugurated. The refurbishment of the existing part of the building, which is listed as a historic monument, and the new building of the concert hall, have been completed to a design by architects von Gerkan, Marg and Partners (gmp)
With a height of 411 meters, the building comes under the high-rise building category of the “super-high skyscrapers” of the CTBUH, the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. This means that the architects von Gerkan, Marg and Partners (gmp) are putting up their highest building ever on the third plot.
Following the designs for the „Evolutioneum“, a natural history museum for Hamburg, and the new Altona railway station at the location of the Diebsteich metropolitan railway station, the Academy for Architectural Culture has now presented five designs for German port museum, Hamburg. The five different designs are the result of the aac’s international spring workshop, which was led by Professor Volkwin Marg and Nikolaus Goetze.
The „Jiaming Maple Park“ ensemble in Beijing has been completed to a design by architects von Gerkan, Marg and Partners (gmp). The practice had been commissioned with the project by the client, Jiaming Investment. The new office ensemble, which has achieved LEED Platinum certification, comprises three compact volumes. The functional layout is based on a sustainable concept with flexibly divisible office zones that can be operated independently.
From 1 to 23 March, this year’s spring workshop of the Academy for Architectural Culture (aac) entitled “Deutsches Hafenmuseum Hamburg: Designs for the National Port Museum” will take place at the Rainvilleterrasse campus in Hamburg under the guidance of Prof. Dr.-Ing. h. c. Volkwin Marg and Dipl.-Ing. Nikolaus Goetze.
The architects von Gerkan, Marg and Partners (gmp) have won the competition for the continuing development of the Kardinal-Döpfner-Haus in Freising. The winning entry for the conversion and extension of the educational center is respectful of the traditional ensemble in this prominent position. The architecture nevertheless makes a confident contemporary mark, and creates new high-quality spaces and interiors, benefiting the surroundings.
The Japanese corporation Olympus is planning a corporate center in the Hamburg district of Hammerbrook for the economic zone in Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA). Von Gerkan, Marg and Partners Architects (gmp) were successful in winning the bidding process for the design of the new office building with medical engineering faculty in the City Süd neighborhood, and was commissioned with the project.
The architects von Gerkan, Marg and Partners (gmp) and the engineers schlaich bergermann partner (sbp) have won the international ideas competition for a roof over Verona’s historic arena. The jointly developed design was the winning entry of over 80 competing submissions, and continues the many years of cooperation between the two practices. Following the Borgo Trento hospital and the new trade exhibition halls, this could become the architects’ third project in Verona.
The new Chinese year "Ben Ming Nian" is dominated by the rooster. Diligence, imagination, courage and talent characterize a person born with this zodiac sign. Regardless of the year in which you are born, we wish you all the best for the next 365 days! Please click here to reach the website of gmp China.
A new trade exhibition and congress center has been completed in Lianyungang, China to a design by architects von Gerkan, Marg and Partners (gmp). The project was subject to an international competition, which was won by gmp. Situated in an urban development area between the city and the sea, the four large exhibition halls surround the congress area in the center of the building.
The extension to the head office of the Gebr. Heinemann trading firm in Hamburg’s HafenCity has been completed to a design by von Gerkan, Marg and Partners (gmp). gmp had won the competition in 2013 and, one year later, started with the construction of the office complex in Hamburg’s Elbquartier; the development blends well with its surroundings in terms of aesthetics and shape.
The new building of the State Fire Brigade School in Würzburg has been completed to a design by the architects practice von Gerkan, Marg and Partners (gmp). The practice had been commissioned with the building in 2012 after a negotiated procedure. During an official opening ceremony, the building was handed over to its user – the State Fire Brigade School.
The OnCube office complex has been completed on the industrial site of the Caohejing company in Shanghai to plans by the architects practice von Gerkan, Marg and Partners (gmp). The design of the new building has been derived from the basic theme of a square – both in its outer appearance and in its details and landscaping.
On 17th November, the latest publication by Volkwin Marg with the original title “Geheimprojekt HafenCity oder Wie erfindet man einen neuen Stadtteil?” (“HafenCity – secret project or how to invent a new city quarter”) has been presented to public. At the launch, which was held at the Kesselhaus in the historic Hamburg Speicherstadt, well-known personalities have contributed with lectures.
The founding partners of the architects practice von Gerkan, Marg and Partners (gmp), Meinhard von Gerkan and Volkwin Marg, have been honored with the 2016 Baukultur prize for their life’s work in architecture. The prize was awarded by Volker Halbach (1st chairman of BDA Hamburg) and Prof. Bernhard Winking (chairman of BDA foundation) in the name of the Association of German Architects (BDA) of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg at an official ceremony on 3 November 2016.
The official topping-out ceremony for German House in Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam took place on 1st November. The high-rise office block reflects its future function of representing the Federal Republic of Germany in Ho Chi Minh City with its succinct architectural pattern language, in which the focus is on transparency and structure. The office building, which has been submitted for certification under the LEED and DGNB schemes, was designed by the architects von Gerkan, Marg and Partners (gmp).
On the occasion of the 80th birthday of the architect Volkwin Marg, the Aedes Architecture Forum in Berlin is staging an anniversary exhibition. From 22 October to 1 December, this multi-faceted presentation will tell the story of one of the founders of the architects’ practice, von Gerkan, Marg and Partners (gmp); animated images, printed material, and publications, presented from two different points of view, give details of an extraordinary personality and the historical and cultural milestones of his life.
The architects’ practice, gmp, is exhibiting its latest book documentation entitled The Art of the Right Distance. Architectural criticism mirrored in the work of the architects von Gerkan, Marg and Partners at Architekturgalerie in Munich. 50 buildings from the last 50 years of gmp’s creative contribution are the basis of a dynamic dialog: photographs by Marcus Bredt are presented together with contemporary comments and critiques in the media.
The exhibition “The art of the right distance” opens in the Architekturgalerie on 29 September. It traces half a century of architectural criticism, using a selection of buildings by the architects von Gerkan, Marg and Partners (gmp) as examples. From 30 September to 11 November 2016, current architecture photographs by Marcus Bredt are being shown alongside statements taken from historical reviews in newspapers and journals.
From 14 September to 7 October the Academy for Architectural Culture (aac) presents the workshop “Altona Nord: Designs for Hamburg’s New Traffic Hub” at Campus Rainvilleterrasse in Hamburg. Three public lectures by renowned visiting professors such as Prof. Jörn Walter (Chief Planning Director of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg, Ministry of Urban Development and Housing), Declan McCafferty (Grimshaw Architects) and Prof. Ir. Kees Christiaanse (KCAP Architects&Planners) complement the program, which is looking for holistic strategies for a main-line station of the 21st century.
“Designing in Dialogue” is opening its doors at yet another location: Since September 12th, a selection of projects has been on display at the Architectural Design and Research Institute of Tsinghua University (THAD), modelled after the comprehensive touring exhibition of the same name.
In the Yizhuang New City district, an established location for high-tech companies in the south-east of
Beijing, the AVIC International Aviation Industry City business park has been completed to a design by gmp · Architects von Gerkan, Marg and Partners. The practice had won the international competition at the beginning of 2012 and was then commissioned to carry out the project.
The architects von Gerkan, Marg and Partners (gmp) have been commissioned to design offices, commercial units and apartments in an existing and a new building on the former Axel Springer area in Hamburg. With a gross floor area of 54,000 square meters, the planned “Springer Quartier” is one of the most ambitious building projects in Hamburg’s inner city.
On the verge of retirement – but still receiving testimonials. In early July, a very special honor was bestowed on the first project in the gmp portfolio: The Association of German Architects chose Berlin-Tegel to receive the Klassik-Nike award.
Following the foundation stone laying ceremony in March 2015, the next stage has now been reached: the topping-out ceremony for Kunsthalle Mannheim took place today, on 1 July. The construction of the currently largest museum project in Germany was assigned to gmp Architects after the practice had emerged from the international competition in 2012 as one of the three leading contestants.
On June 23rd, the foundation stone was laid for the new headquarters of the vip.com online group in the
southern Chinese city of Guangzhou. Stephan Schütz attended the ceremony as the partner representing gmp, von Gerkan, Marg und Partners Architects. At the beginning of the year, gmp won the international competition for the project and was subsequently commissioned to begin construction.
The trend toward dedicated soccer stadiums is also finding acceptance in smaller, previously multifunctional venues. As in the larger arenas, stands bordering directly on the playing field – without a gap formed by a track – create a tighter atmosphere even on a smaller scale and, with today’s demand for differentiated spaces, also represent considerable economic benefits for operators.
The design of the architects von Gerkan, Marg and Partners (gmp) and KCAP Architects & Planners, in cooperation with landscape architects Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl, was awarded first prize in the competition for Zhangjiang Science and Technology City in Shanghai. The international team was able to prevail against two other competitors.
At this year’s Architecture Biennale, the aac will be represented on three occasions. As a young, internationally focused educational establishment for architectural students and graduates, based in Hamburg, the Academy will present itself at the Palazzo Rossini with its history, its mission and its curriculum.
Berlin main railway station? Who still remembers today that, in the past, the mention of this name used to illicit a shrug at best? For more than one hundred years, since the very first beginnings of the railway, Berlin’s decentralized railway network was lacking any kind of “visitor portal”. It...
With the opening of the 29th International Book Fair, the Iranian President Rohani and Tehran’s Mayor Ghalibaf marked the opening of the new exhibition center in Tehran, the Share Aftab, which is being built to a design by architects von Gerkan, Marg and Partners. The new exhibition grounds are located about ten kilometers to the south of the center of the Iranian capital, about half way to the international airport, and are connected to the city by an underground line which opened at the same time.
The design by gmp, Architects von Gerkan, Marg and Partners for the Urban Concert Hall in the Chinese metropolis of Chengdu won out over the competing entries by Jean Nouvel (Paris), Zaha Hadid (London), Nikken Sekkei (Japan) and Aedas (London).
The prestigious prize by the “China International Exchange Committee for Tall Buildings” and the “Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat” was awarded in Shanghai on 13 May. Stephan Rewolle, Associated Partner at gmp, was on site to receive the “CITAB-CTBUH China Tall Building Award” for the building completed last year to a design by Meinhard von Gerkan and Stephan Schütz, with Stephan Rewolle.
A new campus for the German and French schools is being created in the Yangpu district of Shanghai to plans by gmp Architects. The two independent school buildings share public and communal areas at the future Eurocampus. At the heart of the school complex, a piazza provides space for German and French students to meet.
The architects practice gmp has won the competition for Nanjing Financial City II and has been commissioned to produce the master plan and the design for the first development stage. The design for the large-scale financial center is based on intricate detail and references to Nanjing’s historic city structure.
More than half a century after the last new building at the Bund, Shanghai’s historic promenade along the Huangpu River, the famous row of bank and commercial buildings from colonial times has been rounded off with a new architectural highlight. As the last building – for now – in the first row along the river, the Bund SOHO business and office ensemble, designed by gmp Architects von Gerkan, Marg and Partners, adds to the characteristic skyline which gave rise to Shanghai’s reputation as the „Paris of the east“.
In Wuzhen, which is located one hundred kilometers to the south-west of Shanghai in the midst of one of China’s oldest cultivated areas, a rehabilitation clinic with the character of a hotel was built to a design by gmp, Architects von Gerkan, Marg and Partners. The project is jointly funded by German hospital operators and Chinese partners and, with its special medical and architectural standards, addresses the more demanding standards within the Chinese health market.
The 1st prize in the competition for the extension and conversion of the Swiss Hôpital du Valais at Sion goes to gmp Architects and Ferrari Architects. The extension building adds its additional space at a suitable distance from the existing building. The existing and new buildings form a cohesive light-flooded ensemble with short routes using the open space and a circular access route.
Half a year after the foundation stone laying ceremony for the new sports and leisure pool complex, „am Brauhausberg“, the topping-out ceremony for the project – which is currently being built to a design by architects von Gerkan, Marg und Partners (gmp) – will take place on 18 December.
On 26 November 2015, the “Lines of thought” exhibition opened at St. Peter’s Church in Riga, where Meinhard von Gerkan was baptized in 1935. The exhibition will run until 31 January 2016, and shows architectural designs by Meinhard von Gerkan created during the last 50 years. More than 150 original sketches are shown in St. Peter’s Church. First drawings for the design of the Berlin Tegel Airport – the project with which the practice’s history began – are presented as well as those for Berlin’s main railway station and the most important projects in Riga.
The architects von Gerkan, Marg and Partners (Aachen) have been commissioned with the conversion and refurbishment of Ludwigspark Stadium in Saarbrücken. Conspicuous membrane roofs and a linking circulation level create a cohesive ensemble, which integrates the place’s landmarks to form a unique identity.
New headquarters for the 4,000 employees of CNPEC, the power corporation, are being built in Shenzhen to plans by gmp Architects – von Gerkan, Marg and Partners. For the new building in Longgang, in the east of the southern Chinese metropolis, the company had invited prominent architects such as OMA (Rotterdam), KPF (New York), Henn Architects (Munich) and other international practices to take part in a competition, in which gmp was selected as the winner.
The architects, von Gerkan, Marg and Partners, have completed the extension and conversion of Martin Luther School at Rimbach in 2015. The 1300 students of the grammar school, which is one of the most important educational establishments in Germany’s Odenwald region and has music as a key subject area, now have at their disposal 48 class rooms and 19 specialist subject rooms for music, art, and natural sciences.
At the beginning of 2015, the Dayuan International Center was completed in the western Chinese business metropolis Chengdu to plans by the architects von Gerkan, Marg and Partners. The urban ensemble comprises buildings for housing, working and commerce. It is part of the Chengdu Hi-Tech Zone development area to the south of the provincial capital.
On 27 October the International Association for Sports and Leisure Facilities (IAKS) awarded an All Time Award for the Berlin Olympic Stadium at Koelnmesse’s Congress Centre North. The award was given in honor of both the operating company, Olympiastadion Berlin GmbH, and the designers of the extensive conversion (2000 to 2004), gmp – Architects von Gerkan, Marg and Partners, Berlin.
On Saturday, 24 October 2015, the foundation stone laying ceremony for „German House“ took place in Ho Chi Minh City. The building will be constructed in accordance with plans by architects von Gerkan, Marg and Partners. The building is designed to represent the Federal Republic of Germany, and in future will accommodate the German Consulate General with the associated visa office, trade associations, cultural organizations and the local offices of German companies
The architects von Gerkan, Marg and Partners were able to prevail against the competition in the project for Vietnam’s National Exhibition and Trade Fair Center. From nine designs by international architects such as SAMOO Architects & Engineers (Korea), Atkins (Hong Kong) and NIKKEN SEKKEI (Japan), the client, Vingroup, selected the master plan and architectural concept of the Hamburg architects, and announced the result on the 3rd of October.
Construction work on the SIP Sports Centre has started in the Chinese city of Suzhou. The multi-functional sports center in Suzhou Industrial Park, designed by architects von Gerkan, Marg and Partners, has been scheduled for completion in 2017.
Public urban space and architecture are closely interrelated, especially in cultural buildings. Their architecture reflects not only the history and morphology of each place, but also the culture in its entire complexity. These dependencies and expressions are illustrated by means of more recent examples from China and Germany.
How can the development of sustainable habitats be promoted? The GRIHA Summit (Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment), which will be held in New Delhi on March 2nd and 3rd, will address this issue. gmp-founding partner Prof. Dr. h. c. mult. Meinhard von Gerkan will participate as key note speaker concerning the superodinated topic "Transforming Habitat”.
On the occasion of this year’s lecture series Hamburger Städtebauseminar, Prof. Dr.-Ing. h.c. Volkwin Marg speaks about future perspectives of urban development. On 8th February 2017, at 6.30 pm, the lecture of the gmp founding partner focused on experiences and reflections on Hamburg’s HafenCity as well as it demonstrates the context between urban planning and urban culture including examples of realized projects.
The "Global Design Sprint" will be held in Berlin on 18 January 2017. Nicolas Pomränke, Associate Partner at gmp, will also be taking part in this workshop organized by BuroHappold Engineering. In the context of the increasing importance of autonomous vehicles, industry experts are developing and discussing scenarios for three characteristic streets in the federal capital.
On the occasion of this year’s BAU in Munich trade fair, Kai Freitag, Head of IT at gmp, speaks about the methods of digital design, construction, and management. The lecture in german and english language takes part on Tuesday, 17th January 2017, from 1.45 pm to 3 pm, in Hall C2, Booth 309 and is a contribution to the topic of future building, for which “Building Information Modeling” (BIM) will be an indispensable tool.
gmp director Johann von Mansberg presents current examples of certified architecture in Germany. As part of the "Conference on High-Performance, Low-Energy Architecture and Technic" on 3 December 2016, he examines the question of how the projects can contribute to responsible urban development beyond the fulfillment of quantifiable parameters and also be regarded as sustainable in a cultural as well as a social sense.
The exterior of architecture means place, environment and the architecture itself, while the interior involves inner spirit, interior space, detail, material and color. Masterpieces, such as the Pilgrimage Chapel of Notre Dame du Haut at Ronchamp by Le Corbusier, Kimbell Art Museum by Louis Isadore Kahn, Heritance Kandalama by Geoffrey Bawa, and San Cristobal by Luis Barragan, embody the perfect integration of the building form, skin, space, material, color and even furniture and landscape.
The latest publication by Volkwin Marg has been scheduled for 17 November. Speakers at the launch of book – to be held at the Kesselhaus in the historic Hamburg Speicherstadt – include the gmp founding partner, the author Gert Kähler, and Dorothee Stapelfeldt (Senator for Urban Development and Housing), as well as Reiner Nagel (Chairman of Board of Bundesstiftung Baukultur).
Art spaces as a mirror of changes in society – this is the subject of a lecture by Dipl.-Ing. architect Nikolaus Goetze at Tongji University in Shanghai. On 16 November 2016, the gmp Partner and Head of the offices in Hamburg, Shanghai, and Hanoi will talk on selected cultural and museum projects from gmp’s wide range of buildings.
On the occasion of the twelfth Heidelberger Schlossgespräche on 15 November 2016 at 19:00 hours, the two founding partners of gmp, Prof. Dr. h.c. mult. Meinhard von Gerkan and Prof. Dr. h.c. Volkwin Marg, will speak about selected projects. The special focus on this occasion will be on some of the many international cultural buildings that are part of gmp’s oeuvre.
Mit System nach oben“(With a system to the top) – that is the theme of the upcoming symposium about urban housing construction at The Aedes Metropolitan Laboratory at Berlin. On 4 November will be lectures and discussions with representatives of renowned architect- and engineering offices. gmp-partner Stephan Schütz explains how a high-rise project is created from the start. Together with Aedes, the housing association WBM organizes the event. The entry is free, but all lectures are held in German only.
Stephan Schütz will hold a lecture at the "Design for Qingdao - International Coastal Cities and Architecture Summit Forum". The conference venue will be the Grand Theater Qingdao, which is also the object of the lecture among all buildings and projects of gmp in the city.
In her lecture on 31 October 2016, Dipl.-Ing. Magdalene Weiß will focus on innovative urban design using Hamburg’s HafenCity as an example; in the context of the "World Cities Day – Shanghai Forum 2016" in China, the architect, who is an Associate Partner at gmp, will talk about the development of the growing metropolis in northern Germany, particularly under the aspects of social, spatial, and cultural change.
What functions does a contemporary museum have to fulfill? How are these reflected in the architecture? Dipl.-Ing. Architect Nikolaus Goetze, Partner at gmp and Head of the Hamburg, Shanghai, and Hanoi offices, discusses these questions using the example of the new Kunsthalle Mannheim. The public lecture takes place on 27 September from 11:45 to 12:15 at the Bauhaus-Archiv/ Museum für Gestaltung in Berlin. This lecture is given in the context of the conference entitled “Even more museum?!” in preparation for the 100-year anniversary of the Bauhaus.
In its "Self-Portrait in Dialog" series of dialogs, the Freie Akademie der Künste in Hamburg asks which heroes and ideals have had a formative effect on the artists.
At the invitation of the Dean of the Faculty of Architecture, Prof. Li Zhenyu, Nikolaus Goetze holds a guest lecture entitled Cities by the Water – Examples of Urban Planning and Architecture in Hamburg & Shanghai
The rapid development of urbanization in China has provided an unprecedented platform for architects both in China and from all over the world. It is a platform where international and local, creative and controversial elements co-exist. In this context, the „Design for City“ International Architectural Summit Forum aims to focus on architectural design and the future construction of Chinese cities. In 2015, the development of Chinese urban construction has become increasingly rational.
The Kulturforum is an ongoing construction site for German cultural politics. It was conceived during the 1960s as a complex dedicated to the arts, sciences, and music in the former bourgeois Tiergarten quarter, which the Nazis took as their strategic center for their “world capital Germania”. The Philharmonie and the Neue Staatsbibliothek (Berlin State Library) by Hans Scharoun as well as Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’s New National Gallery commissioned by the Berliner Senate were of high international standing.
As part of the “Bau Congress China” event, which takes place in Peking from 23 to 24 June, Stephan Schütz will give a talk on the subject of “Scaling Urban Spaces”. “Smart Building Technology” is the main topic of the third day, which will be moderated by Boris Schade-Bünsow (Bauwelt).
s part of the „Architektur und Qualität der AG Stadtleben“ event series, which takes place in Hannover on Tuesday, 23 June, Meinhard von Gerkan will give a talk on the subject „Großprojekte – ein Bericht aus fünf Jahrzehnten“.
As part oft he Symposium „Annäherungen an Cäsar Pinnau (1906-1988) – Person und Werk in kritischer Analyse“, which takes place from 28 to 30 May, Volkwin Marg will give a talk on the subject of „Natürlich ist Architektur nicht unpolitisch“.
As part of the “advanced building skins” event, which takes place from 23 to 24 April at the Graz University of Technology, Hinrich Müller will give a talk on 23 April 2015.
Volkwin Margs reports in the Hanse Lounge in Hamburg on Wednesday, 18 March 2015 on the whole history of the Hafencity Hamburg. The lecture stands under the theme „Der Hafen gibt, der Hafen nimmt“ – The historical development of the Hafencity.
As part of the international conference “Heritage, Contemporary Architecture and Design in Interaction”, Meinhard von Gerkan will give a talk. The conference takes place from 12 to 13 March - during the “Radi!" 2015 Annual Creativity Week in Riga, Latvia.
The „IX. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Ästhetik“ Congress will take place from 17 – 20 February in Hamburg and stands under the theme „Techne – poiesis – aisthesis. Technik und Techniken in Kunst und ästhetischer Praxis“. Meinhard von Gerkan will give the opening presentation „Architektur – Medium sinnvoller Ästhetik“ on 17 February 2015.
The laudatio at the award ceremony “Gustav-Oelsner-Ziegel” will be delivered by Volkwin Marg on Thursday, 5 February 2015. The prize will be awarded this year for the second time by the Architektur Centrum. Volkwin Marg was the prizewinner at the inaugural awards ceremony in 2008.
As part of the „6. Hamburger Immobilientag“ event, which takes place in Hamburg on 22 January, Meinhard von Gerkan will give a talk on the subject „Lingang New City – eine humane Stadtneugründung für 1,3 Mio. Einwohner”.
At the full-day event, experts give their assessments to the real estate markets and also discuss current topics.
On Wednesday 10 December 2014, Nikolaus Goetze will give a talk on the subject „On Old Foundations. Building in a historical context“.
On Monday 8 December 2014, Volkwin Marg will speak at the “Literarische Salon” in Hannover on the architecture of sports stadiums.
On Thursday, 4 December 2014, Meinhard von Gerkan will give a lecture at Tongji CAUP, in a ceremony for conferring him as Advisory Professor of Tongji University. All colleagues are all welcome to attend.
Stefan Hofmann speaks at Strelka Institiut in Moskau on planning FIFA stadiums.
As part of the “South East Asia Airport Expansion Summit”, Nikolaus Goetze will speak in Hanoi on “Past & Future – Airport Architecture by gmp” on Monday, 25 August 2014.
gmp has designed the old and the new airport for Berlin. The former, Tegel, is still praised, the latter, Berlin Brandenburg, has still not been opened. It seems that it is not possible to approach the future of airport construction responsibly without knowing its past. Meinhard von Gerkan, Hartmut Mehdorn, Robert Grosch and Philipp Bouteiller provide remininscences, assessments and pleas.